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What are the main components of an LCD screen?    Date:2023-09-25

Basic principles of LCD screens

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is a flat display technology that uses liquid crystal material as an optical modulator. Its basic principle is to use the directional arrangement of liquid crystal molecules under the action of an electric field to control the transmission and blocking of light, thereby achieving image display. The LCD screen is mainly composed of several key parts such as liquid crystal layer, glass substrate, conductive layer, color filter, and backlight.


1. Liquid crystal layer of LCD screen

The liquid crystal layer is the core part of the LCD screen and is composed of liquid crystal molecules. Liquid crystal molecules have certain long and short axes, and can change their arrangement direction through the action of an electric field, thereby controlling the transmission and blocking of light. The arrangement of liquid crystal molecules can be divided into different structures such as nematic, twisted nematic, and parallel. The arrangement of different structures determines the working principle and display effect of the LCD screen.

2. Glass substrate of LCD screen

The glass substrate is the supporting structure of the LCD screen and usually consists of two glass plates with a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between them. The glass substrate has good light transmittance and mechanical strength, can protect the liquid crystal layer, and provides a flat surface for the arrangement of liquid crystal molecules. The glass substrate is also coated with a transparent conductive layer for applying an electric field.

3. Conductive layer of LCD screen

The conductive layer is an important part of the LCD screen. It is mainly used to apply electric fields and control the arrangement of liquid crystal molecules. The conductive layer usually uses transparent conductive oxide materials, such as tin oxide (ITO). The conductive layer can be divided into a row conductive layer and a column conductive layer. The electric field is formed by crossing rows and columns to control the arrangement of liquid crystal molecules.

4. Color filters for LCD screens

Color filters are an important part of LCD screens that display color images. It usually consists of filters of three colors: red, green, and blue. By adjusting the intensity of light passing through filters of different colors, color images can be displayed. The design and preparation process of color filters have an important impact on the color reproduction and brightness of the LCD screen.

5. Backlight of LCD screen

The backlight is a key part of the brightness of the LCD screen. It is mainly used to illuminate the back of the LCD screen so that the image can be displayed under the backlight. Commonly used backlight sources include cold cathode tubes (CCFL) and LED backlights. LED backlight has the advantages of high brightness, long life, energy saving, etc., and has gradually replaced CCFL as the mainstream.

6. LCD screen drive circuit

The drive circuit is the control center of the LCD screen. It can control the arrangement of liquid crystal molecules based on input signals to achieve image display. The driving circuit of the LCD screen usually consists of a scanning circuit and a data circuit. The scanning circuit is used to control row scanning and refreshing, and the data circuit is used to control column data input.
7. LCD screen display effect

LCD screens have the advantages of high contrast, wide viewing angles, and low power consumption, and have become one of the most common display technologies in modern electronic products. Different types of LCD screens, such as TN, IPS, VA, etc., have different display effects and characteristics. With the continuous advancement of technology, the display effect of LCD screens is also constantly improving, getting closer and closer to real colors and images.

        As an important flat display technology, LCD screen has broad application prospects. By in-depth understanding of the components and working principles of LCD screens, we can better understand the working principles and display effects of LCD screens. With the advancement and innovation of science and technology, I believe there will be greater breakthroughs and improvements in the display effect and performance of LCD screens.

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